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A History of U.S. Presidential Elections in Maps

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The president of the United States is elected every four years by way of the electoral college, a system devised by the creators of the Constitution that today requires a candidate to secure at least 270 electoral votes from the states to win. That means the history of presidential elections is one best told through maps.


  • Election of 1789

    On February 4, 1789, George Washington was unanimously chosen to be the first president of the United States.

  • Election of 1792

    In December 1792, electors from 15 states voted George Washington to his second term as president.

  • Election of 1796

    John Adams narrowly defeated Thomas Jefferson in 1796.

  • Election of 1800

    Incumbent John Adams once again ran against Thomas Jefferson in 1800. Electoral voters tied, which meant that the House of Representatives would decide the election; it chose Jefferson.

  • Election of 1804

    In 1804 Thomas Jefferson, the incumbent, won decisively over Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.

  • Election of 1808

    After Thomas Jefferson chose not to run for a third term, his fellow Democratic-Republican James Madison defeated Charles Cotesworth Pinckney in 1808.

  • Election of 1812

    In the midst of war James Madison was reelected in 1812, defeating DeWitt Clinton.

  • Election of 1816

    James Monroe was elected by a wide margin over Rufus King in 1816.

  • Election of 1820

    James Monroe had no opponents in 1820; he was thus elected to a second term.

  • Election of 1824

    Although Andrew Jackson received the most electoral votes in 1824, John Quincy Adams was chosen president by the House of Representatives.

  • Election of 1828

    In 1828 Andrew Jackson defeated the incumbent, John Quincy Adams.

  • Election of 1832

    Andrew Jackson easily won reelection over Henry Clay in 1832.

  • Election of 1836

    In 1836 Martin Van Buren defeated several Whig candidates.

  • Election of 1840

    In 1840 William Henry Harrison prevented Martin Van Buren from winning a second term.

  • Election of 1844

    James K. Polk defeated Henry Clay in 1844.

  • Election of 1848

    As the United States continued to expand westward, Zachary Taylor defeated Lewis Cass in 1848.

  • Election of 1852

    In 1852 Franklin Pierce defeated Winfield Scott, the last Whig Party nominee to run for president.

  • Election of 1856

    In 1856 James Buchanan defeated John C. Frémont and, by a much wider margin, former president Millard Fillmore.

  • Election of 1860

    Abraham Lincoln defeated three other candidates in 1860; seven Southern states seceded between his election and his inauguration, in January 1861.

  • Election of 1864

    Abraham Lincoln won reelection over George B. McClellan in 1864 as the Civil War continued; only the states that had remained in the Union voted.

  • Election of 1868

    In 1868 Ulysses S. Grant defeated Horatio Seymour.

  • Election of 1872

    In 1872 Ulysses S. Grant won reelection; he defeated Horace Greeley.

  • Election of 1876

    In one of the most disputed presidential elections in American history, Rutherford B. Hayes won by one electoral vote in 1876; Samuel J. Tilden lost.

  • Election of 1880

    In 1880 James A. Garfield defeated Winfield Scott Hancock.

  • Election of 1884

    In 1884 Grover Cleveland defeated James G. Blaine.

  • Election of 1888

    In 1888 Benjamin Harrison defeated the incumbent, Grover Cleveland.

  • Election of 1892

    In 1892 Grover Cleveland defeated the incumbent, Benjamin Harrison, thereby becoming the first president to serve discontinuous terms.

  • Election of 1896

    William McKinley defeated William Jennings Bryan in 1896; it would be the first of Bryan’s three losses in presidential elections.

  • Election of 1900

    In 1900 the incumbent, William McKinley, defeated William Jennings Bryan.

  • Election of 1904

    Theodore Roosevelt, who had become president in 1901 after William McKinley’s death, defeated Alton B. Parker in 1904.

  • Election of 1908

    In 1908 William Howard Taft defeated William Jennings Bryan.

  • Election of 1912

    Woodrow Wilson defeated two major candidates in 1912: Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft, the incumbent.

  • Election of 1916

    Woodrow Wilson won reelection by defeating Charles Evans Hughes in 1916.

  • Election of 1920

    In 1920 Warren G. Harding defeated James M. Cox.

  • Election of 1924

    In 1924 Calvin Coolidge defeated John W. Davis and Robert M. La Follette.

  • Election of 1928

    Herbert Hoover defeated Al Smith by a substantial margin in 1928.

  • Election of 1932

    In 1932, during the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Herbert Hoover, the incumbent.

  • Election of 1936

    In 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt was reelected by a large margin, defeating Alf Landon.

  • Election of 1940

    Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to an unprecedented third term in 1940, defeating Wendell Willkie.

  • Election of 1944

    Franklin D. Roosevelt secured his fourth term in 1944, during World War II, when he defeated Thomas E. Dewey

  • Election of 1948

    In 1948 Harry S. Truman, who had become president after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1945, defeated Thomas E. Dewey.

  • Election of 1952

    In 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower defeated Adlai E. Stevenson.

  • Election of 1956

    As he had done in 1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower defeated Adlai E. Stevenson in 1956.

  • Election of 1960

    In 1960 John F. Kennedy defeated Richard Nixon.

  • Election of 1964

    Lyndon B. Johnson, who had become president after John F. Kennedy died in 1963, decisively defeated Barry Goldwater in 1964.

  • Election of 1968

    In 1968 Richard Nixon defeated Hubert Humphrey and George Wallace.

  • Election of 1972

    In 1972 Richard Nixon, the incumbent, won a massive victory over George McGovern.

  • Election of 1976

    In 1976 Jimmy Carter defeated Gerald Ford, who had become president after Richard Nixon’s resignation in 1974.

  • Election of 1980

    In 1980 Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter.

  • Election of 1984

    In 1984 Ronald Reagan defeated Walter Mondale by a vast margin.

  • Election of 1988

    George H.W. Bush defeated Michael Dukakis in 1988.

  • Election of 1992

    In 1992 Bill Clinton defeated George H.W. Bush, the incumbent.

  • Election of 1996

    Bill Clinton won reelection by defeating Bob Dole in 1996.

  • Election of 2000

    In 2000 George W. Bush defeated Al Gore in a closely contested election.

  • Election of 2004

    In 2004 George W. Bush won a second term by defeating John Kerry.

  • Election of 2008

    In 2008 Barack Obama defeated John McCain; he became the first Black president.

  • Election of 2012

    In 2012 Barack Obama was elected to a second term, defeating Mitt Romney.

  • Election of 2016

    Donald Trump defeated Hillary Clinton in 2016.

  • Election of 2020

    In 2020 Joe Biden defeated the incumbent, Donald Trump.

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