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Show What You Know (Episode 1: The Universe)

Join host Christopher Lloyd and three middle-school contestants on this premier episode of Encyclopedia Britannica's first quiz show series, “Show What You Know.” Using quizzes, music and comedy sketches, Chris and the kids go on a fun-filled tour of the Universe, which includes a guest appearance from a NASA scientist.

Transcript

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Announcer (00:06):
It's time for Show What You Know, the podcast from Encyclopaedia Britannica, where kids get to test their knowledge and match their wits to win cool prizes. And now all the way from Great Britain here is world history author, and the host of Show What You Know, Christopher Lloyd,

Christopher Lloyd (00:25):
Hello, everyone. And welcome to Show What You Know, my name is Christopher Lloyd and like many of you out there, I am a firm believer that the real world is far more amazing than anything you can make up. And it's hard to think of anything more amazing than today's topic: "The Universe"!

Christopher Lloyd (00:47):
Now, before we get started, we're going to go over the ground rules, which are pretty simple. Each of our three contestants has received a chapter about the universe from the Britannica All New Kids' Encyclopedia. They've each had 24 hours to study the chapter and prepare for the quiz. So now, let's meet our three contestants and see what they've learned.

Announcer (01:13):
Contestant Number one.

Cannon (01:15):
Hi, I'm Cannon, I'm nine, and I live in Darien, Illinois outside of Chicago.

Announcer (01:23):
Contestant number two.

Amos (01:25):
Hi, my name is Amos. I'm nine and I live in New York City.

Announcer (01:30):
Contestant number three.

Meera (01:32):
Hi I'm Meera! I'm eight years old. I live in Livingston, New Jersey.

Christopher Lloyd (01:36):
Are you guys ready to play, Show What You Know?

Christopher Lloyd (01:41):
Okay. Our first quiz is called true or false. I'm going to give you all a series of facts and you have to tell me which ones are true and which ones are false. The first contestant to hit the buzzer and give the right answer gets one point. But if you give the wrong answer, you lose one point. Okay, here we go.

Question one. A solar eclipse happens when the sun passes between the earth and the moon. Oh, Meera. You were right in there quickly on your buzzer. Congratulations. Tell us, was that statement true or false?

Meera (02:24):
It's false, it's when the sun goes behind the moon.

Christopher Lloyd (02:28):
You are absolutely right. Meera. You get one point. Congratulations.

Meera (02:31):
Thank you.

Christopher Lloyd (02:32):
Okay. Here's question two. Most stars have planets orbiting them. First off, the buzzer was Cannon. Tell us, was that statement true or false?

Cannon (02:45):
It's actually true. Most planets are actually orbiting stars.

Christopher Lloyd (02:50):
That's very good. And what you're saying is that most stars have planets orbiting them, just like the earth is orbiting the sun, and other stars have other planets, and you're absolutely correct. Congratulations. You get a point.

Cannon (03:03):
Thank you.

Christopher Lloyd (03:04):
Okay, here we are with question three: it costs $25 to make a toilet for outer space. First off, the buzzer was Meera. Congratulations, Meera. Very quick work. Tell us, was that statement true or false?

Meera (03:19):
False.

Christopher Lloyd (03:20):
Oh!

Meera (03:20):
Actually, it costs 19 million dollars to make a toilet!

Christopher Lloyd (03:25):
19 million. Can you imagine how much it costs every time you flush that toilet? That is a brilliant answer. Meera, you're absolutely right. You get a point!

Meera (03:35):
Thank you.

Christopher Lloyd (03:35):
Now this is the last question of the round fingers on your buzzers. Here we go. Six crewed missions have landed on the moon. Oh, Cannon. You were in there, like the speed of light. Well done. Tell us, is that statement true or false?

Cannon (03:51):
It is actually true.

Christopher Lloyd (03:54):
Oh!

Cannon (03:54):
Six missions landed on the moon.

Christopher Lloyd (03:56):
That's very interesting. And do you know Canon, how many people have actually walked on the moon?

Cannon (04:03):
Uh... well, I don't know!

Christopher Lloyd (04:03):
Well, how many people were there in each of those missions that landed on the moon? Does anybody know? Meera? Amos? Do you know?

Meera (04:09):
I think it's three people.

Christopher Lloyd (04:11):
Three people were in the crew, but only two in each mission actually walked on the moon because one of them had to look after those kinds of spacecraft orbiting the moon, which means that if there were six missions to the moon, 12 people have actually walked on the moon, which is amazing. If you think about it.

Cannon (04:26):
Wow.

Christopher Lloyd (04:26):
Okay, we're off to a great start. Let's give a hearty round of applause for the contestants!

[Cheering]

Christopher Lloyd (04:37):
Okay, okay! That's enough. And now this next round is called...

Female V.O. (04:40):
Listified!

Christopher Lloyd (04:40):
And here's how it works. I'm going to read a list. And one of the things on the list doesn't belong there. After I finished reading the list, the first contestant to hit the buzzer and tell us what shouldn't be on the list wins the quiz. A correct answer is worth four points. Here we go.

Christopher Lloyd (05:07):
Scientists think our solar system could have hundreds of dwarf planets. So far only five are officially recognized. All of the following are dwarf planets, except for one. Which one is it? Pluto Ceres, Eris, Mercury, Haumea, Makemake. Meera! You were first on the buzzer. Tell me, which one of those did not belong on the list.

Meera (05:40):
Mercury.

Christopher Lloyd (05:40):
Oh, congratulations. Very good. Indeed. Mercury as Meera has rightly said is an actual planet. It's not a dwarf planet at all. Well done, Meera! You've scored four points.

Meera (05:52):
Thank you.

Newscaster (05:55):
We interrupt this regularly scheduled show to bring you some Breaking News. The world is spinning around the sun at 26,000 miles per hour at 11:00 PM. Eastern standard time, it will stop spinning and everyone will fly off the face of the earth into outer space to never be seen again. In other news, the Chicago Cubs...

Christopher Lloyd (06:14):
Yeah. Hey, well, wait a second. That is only half right.

Newscaster (06:18):
But it says right here...

Christopher Lloyd (06:20):
Yes. Part of what you're saying is true. The earth is spinning around the sun, at 26,000 miles an hour, but it's not going to stop spinning and nobody is ever going to go flying off into outer space because we're held down by gravity. Gravity is the force that holds the entire universe together.

Newscaster (06:41):
Are you sure about that?

Christopher Lloyd (06:44):
Absolutely.

Newscaster (06:48):
News flash. The earth will not stop spinning tomorrow and nobody is going to be flying into outer space because of gravity. And now back to your regularly scheduled quiz show.

Christopher Lloyd (07:01):
Sorry about that folks. Okay. Let's take a moment to check the scores. Cannon has two points. Amos has no points and Meera is on six points. [Applause] This brings us to our next quiz...

Male V.O. (07:18):
Phony Baloney!

Christopher Lloyd (07:21):
We call it Phony Baloney because there are four incorrect things in the sentences I'm about to read you. When you hear the wrong thing, you have to shout... "Baloney!" Let's give it a try, everyone. Shout "Baloney!"

Contestants (07:37):
Baloney!

Christopher Lloyd (07:37):
Great. Okay. Now after you shout "Baloney," you can get an extra point. If you tell me what the correct answer is, we're going to start with contestant Number One, which is Cannon. Cannon, when you hear something that doesn't sound right. What do you shout?

Cannon (07:56):
"Baloney!"

Christopher Lloyd (07:56):
Okay. So the subject is the stars. Stars are giant balls of gas. [Flatulence sound] No, no, not that kind of gas. Let me start again. Stars are giant balls of gas, a process called nuclear indigestion takes place in the core of them.

Cannon (08:18):
"Baloney!"

Christopher Lloyd (08:18):
Oh, okay. What was wrong with that?

Cannon (08:20):
It's nuclear fusion. Not nuclear indigestion.

Christopher Lloyd (08:23):
Oh, of course. You're absolutely right. And I'm very happy never to have had nuclear indigestion myself, I have to say. But that's a very good answer, Cannon. Okay. I'm going to carry on with the sentences. Here we go. This produces huge amounts of energy in the form of light, loud banging sounds and heat.

Cannon (08:40):
"Baloney!"

Christopher Lloyd (08:42):
Okay. Tell me what, what was wrong with that?

Cannon (08:44):
It doesn't have banging sounds. It's only light and heat - there's no sounds.

Christopher Lloyd (08:49):
Okay. That's very good. Another correct answer. Here we go. We're going to carry on. Stars appear to twinkle because of their atmospheres. Our sun is a yellow giant star.

Cannon (08:59):
"Baloney!"

Christopher Lloyd (09:02):
Oh, what was baloney about that?

Cannon (09:03):
As a matter of fact, our sun is actually a yellow dwarf star.

Christopher Lloyd (09:08):
Wow. That is amazing, Cannon. You have been doing a tremendous amount of research for this quiz. We're so impressed. So actually there was one thing there Cannon that you didn't spot. I said that stars appear to twinkle because of their atmospheres. And in fact, it's because of our atmosphere here on earth. So in that round, you definitely identified three out of four baloneys. Many congratulations, Cannon. [Applause].

Cannon (09:33):
Thank you.

Christopher Lloyd (09:35):
Now we're going to move on to Amos, our contestant. Number Two. Now Amos, your subject is our solar system. Here we go. Our solar system contains the sun, the planets, dwarf planets, such as Pluto, asteroids, and many other objects that orbit the sun. There are eight major planets, the smallest being Venus and the largest being Saturn.

Amos (10:02):
"Baloney!"

Christopher Lloyd (10:02):
Oh, okay. What happened?

Amos (10:04):
The largest planet is not Saturn, it is Jupiter.

Christopher Lloyd (10:07):
Oh, very good. Thank you. Excellent, Amos - nicely done. Okay. I'm going to carry on now between Saturn and Jupiter is the asteroid belt. A vast region full of asteroids.

Amos (10:22):
"Baloney!"

Christopher Lloyd (10:22):
Okay. What was wrong?

Amos (10:24):
The Astro belt is not between Saturn and Jupiter. It's between the regular planets and the gas giants.

Christopher Lloyd (10:30):
It's between the regular. Oh, Okay. Regular planets. You mean like Rocky planets, like Earth and Mars and Venus...

Amos (10:36):
Yeah.

Christopher Lloyd (10:36):
...and the gas giants. You're absolutely right. It is between Mars and Jupiter. Very good Amos. Fantastic. All right. I'm going to carry on between Mars and Jupiter is the asteroid belt. A vast region full of asteroids beyond Neptune is a belt of comets and asteroids named the meatball cloud. Okay. Amos. So you correctly worked out two of my baloneys, but there were two others that I managed to sneak through. The first one is that I said the smallest planet was Venus. Actually the smallest planet is mercury, not Venus. And just at the end there, I said that the big cloud of asteroids is named the meatball cloud, and it's not actually called that. It's called that Kuiper Belt. Well done Amos!

Amos (11:24):
[Applause] Thank you.

Christopher Lloyd (11:27):
Last but not least is our third contestant Meera. Now Meera, your subject is about crewed spacecraft. Humans have been traveling into space since the 1940s.

Meera (11:44):
"Baloney!" It's 1960s!

Christopher Lloyd (11:44):
Oh, well you were so quick on that. That was fantastic. You're absolutely right. Okay. The first person to travel into space was Homer Simpson.

Meera (11:54):
"Baloney!"

Christopher Lloyd (11:54):
Oh right. What's wrong with that Meera?

Meera (11:56):
It's Yuri Gagarin.

Christopher Lloyd (11:58):
Very good. Yuri Gagarin, uh Homer Simpson. I don't think he was Russian and he definitely wasn't the first person in space. So well done. Here we go. He orbited the earth three time.

Meera (12:10):
"Baloney." It's only one and a little more.

Christopher Lloyd (12:12):
Really? You're brilliant, but you're right. He didn't orbit the earth three times. It was just once or just over once. Okay. Today astronauts sometimes live in space for months. Up to 50 astronauts at a time live aboard the international space station, carrying out experiments and research.

Meera (12:33):
"Baloney."

Christopher Lloyd (12:33):
What, what was the problem?

Meera (12:36):
It's up to six!

Christopher Lloyd (12:36):
Oh right. Not 50 but six. So looking at my scoreboard here, I can see the Canon has now got eight points. Amos has got four points and Meera is in the lead with 14 points! Congratulations Meera! But all these points are going to change because we still have two more quizzes to go. So stay tuned and we'll get started with our next quiz right after this word from our sponsor.

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Male V.O. (14:08):
All trips are based on the theory of relativity, no returns and refunds aloud. This offer expires in the year 3130.

Christopher Lloyd (14:13):
That just blows my mind. The closer you get to the speed of light, the slower you age, who knows maybe someday there really will be a Lightspeed Cruise Line. Okay. Our next quiz is...

Female V.O. (14:28):
FACTastic!

Christopher Lloyd (14:31):
For this quiz. I am going to ask a contestant a series of 10 rapid fire questions. Each time they answer a question correctly, they get one point. If you don't know the answer, just say "pass", or "don't know" and we'll move on. We have 45 seconds to get through the questions. So let's begin with Meera. Are you ready Meera?

Meera (14:54):
Yes!

Christopher Lloyd (14:54):
Here's your first question: Hydrogen and what other element were the first to appear after the Big Bang?

Meera (15:01):
Helium.

Christopher Lloyd (15:01):
Excellent. What is the boundary that marks the limits of a black hole?

Meera (15:05):
Event horizon.

Christopher Lloyd (15:07):
Brilliant. What do we call planets outside our solar system.

Meera (15:14):
Exoplanets.

Christopher Lloyd (15:14):
Genius! Which of our solar system's planets is furthest from the sun?

Meera (15:17):
Neptune!

Christopher Lloyd (15:19):
Brilliant. What is at the center of galaxies?

Meera (15:23):
Super Massive Black holes.

Christopher Lloyd (15:24):
Which planet has the shortest day?

Meera (15:26):
Jupiter.

Christopher Lloyed (15:27):
Very good. What do we call streams of particles emitted by the sun?

Meera (15:32):
Solar wind!

Christopher Lloyd (15:32):
Solar wind. Brilliant. Okay. Time's up? That was awesome. Meera. You correctly answered seven out of 10 questions.

Amos, you're up next. Are you ready for your questions?

Amos (15:45):
Yes.

Christopher Lloyd (15:46):
Okay. We have 45 seconds starting from now. What is at the center of a black hole.

Amos (15:52):
Pass.

Christopher Lloyd (15:52):
Okay. What do we call the average distance from the Earth to the Sun?

Amos (15:57):
Lightyears?

Christopher Lloyd (15:58):
No, it's an astronomical unit. Which astronomer first suggested that Earth and the other planets orbiting the sun?

Amos (16:06):
Pass.

Christopher Lloyd (16:07):
It was Copernicus. Cosmic microwave background radiation shows heat left by what event?

Amos (16:14):
The Big Bang.

Christopher Lloyd (16:15):
Very good. Excellent. What do we call the outer atmosphere of the sun?

Amos (16:20):
Pass.

Christopher Lloyd (16:20):
It's called Corona. What is the nearest star to the earth?

Amos (16:25):
The Sun.

Christopher Lloyd (16:25):
What type of astronomical body did the ESA's probe "Philae" land on?

Amos (16:30):
Pass.

Christopher Lloyd (16:31):
It was a comet. Okay. Amos, you got two out of seven right answers on that round.

Now, it's Cannon's turn. Cannon, are you ready for your questions?

Cannon (16:42):
Yes.

Christopher Lloyd (16:43):
Great. Here we go. 45 seconds. Starting from now. What do astronomers call the areas between stars?

Cannon (16:53):
Interstellar space!

Christopher Lloyd (16:53):
Great! What is the belt of comets and asteroids beyond Neptune called?

Cannon (16:58):
Kuiper belt.

Christopher Lloyd (16:58):
Very good. What instrument which predates the telescope allowed ancient astronomers to map the night sky?

Cannon (17:06):
Astrolabe

Christopher Lloyd (17:07):
Astrolabe, very good. What planet is between Saturn and Neptune?

Cannon (17:13):
Uranus.

Christopher Lloyd (17:13):
Fantastic. What type of galaxy is the Milky way?

Cannon (17:17):
Spiral.

Christopher Lloyd (17:18):
Very good. Which planet did NASA's Curiosity Rover explore?

Cannon (17:23):
Mars.

Christopher Lloyd (17:24):
Brilliant. What is Jupiter's great, red spot?

Cannon (17:27):
Storm!

Christopher Lloyd (17:28):
Name, a constellation that can be seen from the Southern Hemisphere.

Cannon (17:33):
Hydra.

Christopher Lloyd (17:33):
Cannon, That is fantastic. Okay. Time's up, Congratulations. You've correctly answered eight out of 10 questions.

Cannon (17:42):
Thank you.

Christopher Lloyd (17:44):
Wow. I don't know about you, but I need to catch my breath after all that. It's a good thing too, because this is the part of the show where I get to relax and let our contestants ask some questions. And we're very fortunate to have a special guest with us today. Dr. Michelle Thaller. Dr. Thaller is an astronomer, and she was also a contributor to the Britannica All New Kids' Encyclopedia: What We Know & What We Don't. Hello there, Dr. Thaller!

Dr. Thaller (18:12):
Hi, Chris. Great to be here.

Christopher Lloyd (18:14):
Well, it's really wonderful to have you on the show and we've got some incredibly smart contestants here and I know they're super eager to ask you their questions, because you never know one of them may end up becoming an astronomer.

Dr. Thaller (18:27):
I certainly hope so.

Christopher Lloyd (18:28):
Yeah. Wouldn't that be great? And it isn't every day, of course you get to talk to a real live astronomer. So let's start off with Cannon. What would you like to ask Dr. Thaller?

Cannon (18:38):
Hello Dr. Thaller! I'm Cannon. What would it feel like in Earth when the Andromeda Galaxy collides with the Milky Way?

Dr. Thaller (18:46):
That's a great question, Cannon. That's wonderful. First thing is, is we don't, we don't need to worry about it personally so much, cause it's not going to happen for about another 3 billion years.

Cannon (18:55):
Oh, good.

Dr. Thaller (18:56):
And the wonderful thing is that the earth would probably be fine because you see galaxies are so huge. I mean the Sun, our star is huge. You could fit a million earths inside our sun, but if the Sun were the size of the dot of an eye on a page of text, then our galaxy would be a little bit bigger than the earth. And the Andromeda galaxy is the same way. And these galaxies are so big and there's so much space between the stars that the stars probably won't ever actually hit each other. And the cool thing is the sky will light up with this galaxy actually filling our sky. It'll set up a whole new generation of new stars. So I think the wonderful thing for us is we're in for a spectacular view. If anybody's around 3 billion years from now, but, but there's nothing to worry about. The, the solar system will probably be just fine.

Cannon (19:41):
Thank you.

Christopher Lloyd (19:42):
Well, that is just amazing. What a terrific question Cannon. Okay. Let's move on to our contestant number two. Amos, what would you like to ask Dr. Thaller?

Amos (19:52):
How many light years away is the nearest galaxy?

Dr. Thaller (19:57):
Amos, that's a wonderful question because like everything else in life, it can get a little bit complicated. So the Andromeda galaxy is the nearest big galaxy to us. And as we mentioned, that's going to come and hit us a few billion years and the Andromeda galaxy is 2 million light years away from us. So that means that when you see Andromeda in the sky and you actually can see it with your unaided eye on a very dark winter night, you can see it. You're actually looking at light that left the stars 2 million years ago. There are also some little galaxies that actually orbit our own Milky Way. They're called the Magellanic clouds. And those are closer. Those are only about 150,000 light years away. So when you look at those, the light is 150,000 years old. So 2 million years ago, there weren't even really, you know, humans the way we understand them. So when you see Andromeda in the sky, you're actually looking at light that left the galaxy before they were really people like us.

Christopher Lloyd (20:48):
What about that Amos? Isn't that incredible? I mean, so how do we know that those galaxies are still there?

Dr. Thaller (20:53):
Well, luckily stars live a lot longer than 2 million years, so there are some very, very massive stars that blow up in only a few million years, but two million years isn't that long for star's lifetime. So it probably looks pretty much the same.

Christopher Lloyd (21:05):
Well, Amos. That is a fantastic question. Brilliant. Thank you for asking that with Dr. Thaller. Now to our final contestant Meera, what have you got up your sleeve? What would you like to know?

Meera (21:15):
Dr. Thaller, can we look farther than this galaxy? Like, can we see farther than the Milky Way galaxy?

Dr. Thaller (21:23):
Oh, absolutely, Meera. That's a great question. So our galaxy is about a hundred thousand light years across. So, you know, like takes a hundred thousand years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other, but the farthest galaxies we can see, and mainly we use the Hubble Space Telescope for this, we can actually see them as they were about 12 billion years ago. And that's amazing because you think, okay, wow. So that galaxy, you know, it must be 12 billion, light years away because the light left 12 billion years ago. But in fact, the entire universe has expanded since that galaxy's light started toward us. So that galaxy today is more on the order of 30 billion, light years away from us. So we can actually see very, very far out into space and with the next generation of space telescopes, we want to see even further. We actually want to see back to a time when the very first stars turned on for the first time. We're really going to look for that the next few years. So if you guys go to university, and become astronomers, you might be able to study the very first stars that ever existed!

Christopher Lloyd (22:20):
And be the first people to see them. I mean, that will be incredible. Wouldn't it? Thank you so much for being here, Dr. Thaller, and I hope you can stick around. We're coming up to the last question of the game.

Male V.O. (22:31):
Bonus Round!

Christopher Lloyd (22:33):
In this round, contestants can double their score if they give the right answer. And right now the scores on the doors, we have Cannon on 16, Amos on 6, and Meera on 21. So this question, is a little different from the other ones we've been asking, because it's less about facts and more about using your imagination. Now I'm going to ask you to listen to a song and as you're listening to the song, send me a secret message telling me what you think the song is all about. Now, everyone has to listen very carefully to the song. Here it is.

SONG (23:24):
There’s a place with a face in our solar system
Not very far away
And would you believe that we’ve already been there
And we’ll be back someday?

The gravity is low
And you can float with ease
The craters on the surface look like pizza topped with cheese
Show that you know what you know,
You know what you know.

Christopher Lloyd (23:59):
Oh, wow. Wasn't that a beautiful song right now? I'm hoping you've all managed to type in an answer as to what you think that song was about. And then after you hear me count to three, I want you to press your buzzers and reveal the answers. Are you ready? One, Two, three! Fantastic. We have got three, correct answers! How about that? And of course, the correct answer was... The Moon!

Christopher Lloyd (24:32):
Okay. Now looking at our final scoreboard, we can see that in third place, we have Amos on 12 points and in second place, we have Cannon on 32 points. But in first place we have the fabulous Meera on 42 points. Congratulations, Meera.

Meera (24:53):
Thank you!

Christopher Lloyd (24:53):
Brilliant. Now, before we hand out the prizes, I want to thank our contestants for playing Show What You Know! Cannon, Amos, and Meera, you three did a terrific job, and I hope you have enjoyed being on the show, just as much as I have enjoyed having you on the show. So, Kurt, why don't you tell our contestants what they've won?

Announcer (25:17):
Thanks Chris. For showing us what they know, each of our contestants will be receiving a copy of Chris's book, Absolutely Everything! A History of Earth, Dinosaurs, Rulers, Robots and Other Things Too Numerous to Mention. They will also be receiving a year long subscription to Britannica Kids online premium, with over 1 million pages of fact checked content, podcasts, videos, interactive coverage of major historical events, and access to Britannica's three volume first edition. And our grand prize winner will be receiving a six month subscription to Kiwico, the company that empowers kids to explore, create, and have fun, with hands on building kits delivered to their home.

Christopher Lloyd (25:59):
Thank you everyone For joining us today on our trip around the galaxy, we hope you can join us next time. When the topic will be "Planet Earth!" Until then, this is Christopher Lloyd reminding all of you that the real world is far more amazing than anything you can make up.

Announcer (26:20):
Sound engineer and editor for Show What You Know is Ryan Staples. Our QA researchers are Alison Eldridge and Letricia Dixon. Our production assistant is Emily Goldstein. Chris' guests today were Meera, Amos, and Cannon. Music was by Jacob Denny. Original songs by Dennis Scott. Show What You Know was written, directed and produced by Rick Siggelkow. Our executive producer is Rick Livingston, and I'm your announcer, Kurt Heintz. This program is copyrighted by Encyclopaedia Britannica Incorporated, all rights reserved.

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