Al Capone, byname of Alphonse Capone, also called Scarface, (born January 17, 1899, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.—died January 25, 1947, Palm Island, Miami Beach, Florida), the most famous American gangster, who dominated organized crime in Chicago from 1925 to 1931.
Capone’s parents immigrated to the United States from Naples in 1893. Al, the fourth of nine children, grew up in Brooklyn, New York. He attended school until the sixth grade, whence he dropped out at age 14 after striking a teacher. He worked a variety of odd jobs—as a candy store clerk, a bowling alley pinboy, a labourer in an ammunition plant, and a cutter in a book bindery—all the while serving in the South Brooklyn Rippers and Forty Thieves Juniors, two “kid gangs”—that is, bands of delinquent children known for vandalism and petty crime that were common in New York at the time.
Capone also became a member of the James Street Boys gang during this period, which was run by Johnny Torrio, the man that would become his lifelong mentor, and associated with the Five Points gang. At age 16 Capone became a member of the Five Points gang and served aspiring mobster Francesco Ioele (Torrio’s associate, more commonly known as Frankie Yale) as a bartender in Yale’s brothel-saloon, the Harvard Inn.
Before Capone turned 21, he was involved in several violent incidents. In a youthful scrape at the Harvard Inn, a young hoodlum named Frank Galluccio slashed Capone with a knife or razor across his left cheek after Capone made a crude comment to Galluccio’s sister, prompting the later nickname “Scarface.” Capone later shot the winner of a neighbourhood craps game to death as he robbed him of his winnings. Despite being questioned by the police, Capone was let go because no one had witnessed the murder. In another incident, Capone brutally assaulted a low-level member of the rival White Hand gang and left him for dead. Since White Hand gang leaders promised retribution, Yale sent Capone, his wife, and his young child to Chicago to work for Torrio.
Torrio had moved from New York to Chicago in 1909 to help run the giant brothel business under Chicago crime boss Big Jim Colosimo. Shortly after Capone’s arrival in the city in 1919, Colosimo was assassinated by either Yale or Capone himself in 1920 to make way for Torrio’s rule. As Prohibition began, new bootlegging operations opened up and drew in immense wealth. In 1924 Capone was responsible for the murder of Joe Howard in retribution for Howard’s earlier assault of one of Capone’s friends. William McSwiggin, an aggressive prosecutor, attempted but failed to indict Capone when the eyewitnesses to the killing, fearing harm, lost their nerve and denied remembering the incident. Later that year Torrio and Capone enlisted Yale and other associates to murder gang leader Dion O’Bannion in his flower shop. O’Bannion’s associates Hymie Weiss and George (“Bugs”) Moran were unsuccessful in their attempt to kill Torrio in early 1925.
After a stint in prison, Torrio retired to Italy, and Capone became crime czar of Chicago, running gambling, prostitution, and bootlegging rackets and expanding his territories by gunning down rivals and rival gangs. In 1926 Capone went into hiding for three months after he and some of his gunmen inadvertently killed McSwiggin while attacking other rivals. (That evening McSwiggin had been out drinking with two childhood friends, who were also beer runners, and other criminals when he was gunned down in the street.) Again Capone went unpunished. His wealth in 1927 was estimated at close to $100 million. The most notorious of the bloodlettings was the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre, in which seven members of Bugs Moran’s gang were machine-gunned in a garage on Chicago’s North Side on February 14, 1929. Also in 1929, Capone served some 10 months in Holmesburg Prison, in Philadelphia, after being convicted of possessing a concealed handgun. Many Americans were fascinated by the larger-than-life image of Capone. Indeed, the motion picture Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932), directed by Howard Hawks, starred Paul Muni in the role of a gangster loosely based on Capone, who reputedly obtained a copy of the film for private screenings.
On June 5, 1931, Capone was indicted for 22 counts of federal income-tax evasion for the years 1925 through 1929. On June 12 Capone and others were charged with conspiracy to violate Prohibition laws for the years 1922 to 1931. In October Capone was tried, found guilty on three of the 23 counts, and sentenced to 11 years in prison and $50,000 in fines and court costs. He entered Atlanta penitentiary in May 1932 but was transferred to the new Alcatraz prison in August 1934. In November 1939, suffering from the general deterioration of paresis (a late stage of syphilis), he was released and entered a Baltimore hospital. Later he retired to his Florida estate, where he died from cardiac arrest in 1947, a powerless recluse.